Study Finds Proton Pump Inhibitors May Increase Type 2 Diabetes Risk
A study published on September 28 found that proton pump inhibitors such as Nexium, Prilosec and Prevacid may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. The study found that regular PPI users had a 24% higher risk of type 2 diabetes than non-users.
The study was a prospective analysis of 204,689 participants who did not have diabetes. The researchers then followed the participants to see who developed diabetes according to American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria.
The study found that the diabetes risk increased as the duration of PPI use increased.
“Regular use of PPIs was associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes and the risk increased with longer duration of use. Physicians should therefore exercise caution when prescribing PPIs, particularly for long-term use,” the researchers concluded in their abstract.
The study notes that a recent randomized controlled trial demonstrated a trend towards a risk of type 2 diabetes associated with PPI use.
Proton pump inhibitors are commonly used to treat heartburn. They work by creating a strong, long-lasting reduction in stomach acid. They do this by blocking the hydrogen/potassium adenosine triphosphatase enzyme system.
Proton Pump Inhibitor Side Effects
PPIs have been previously linked by research to acute interstitial nephritis, which can lead to kidney damage or kidney failure. A study published in June, which was undertaken because of this link, found that PPI use is associated with an increased mortality risk in recipients of kidney transplants.
Over 15,000 lawsuits allege that PPI manufacturers knew about the risks of kidney damage attached to their products for years and failed to warn the public about these risks.
PPIs were also found to be linked to two to almost four times the risk of being infected by COVID-19 in a recent study. PPIs reduce stomach acid production and acid kills pathogens in the stomach.
PPIs may also increase the risk of dementia, possibly by affecting the synthesis of acetylcholine, according to a recent study.
PPIs can commonly cause nausea, headache, abdominal pain, diarrhead, dizziness and fatigue. PPIs can uncommonly cause itch, rash, constipation, flatuence, depression and anxiety. PPI use can infrequently be associated with myopathies, such as rhabdomyolysis.
PPI use has been shown to possibly interfere with the absorption of vitamin B12, magnesium, calcium and iron.
Long-term or high dose use of PPIs has been found to possibly increase the risk of bone fractures.